Door and Window

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In Fenix+ 3, the Door and Window elements are the so-called Material Elements, and for them, with the exception of some peculiarities, everything that concerns Material Elements is true.

Unlike other Material Elements, the Door and Window elements are converted to a set of OBST elements in the FDS file with some peculiarities.

The door is considered open if the With a Closer or Fireproof property is not activated. An open door is an opening in the wall and no OBST elements in the FDS file are assigned to it.

Door and Window in Fenix+ 3{width=40%}

Door and Window in Smokeview{width=60%}

In the FDS file, the Door and Window can be represented by something like the following code:

Door

&MATL ID=‘5’ FYI=‘Paneli DVP’ CONDUCTIVITY=1 DENSITY=1000 HEAT_OF_COMBUSTION=18100 SPECIFIC_HEAT=1/

&SURF ID=‘6’ THICKNESS=0.05 RGB=0,0,205 MATL_ID=‘5’/

“Zdanie 1” – “Dver 1”

&OBST XB=5,5,3.75,4,0,2 SURF_ID=‘6’ RGB=50,205,50/

&OBST XB=5,5.25,3.75,3.75,0,2 SURF_ID=‘6’ RGB=50,205,50/

&OBST XB=5.25,5.25,3.5,3.75,0,2 SURF_ID=‘6’ RGB=50,205,50/

&OBST XB=5.25,5.5,3.5,3.5,0,2 SURF_ID=‘6’ RGB=50,205,50/

&OBST XB=5.5,5.5,3.25,3.5,0,2 SURF_ID=‘6’ RGB=50,205,50/

Window

&MATL ID=‘7’ FYI=‘Steklo okonnoe’ CONDUCTIVITY=1.15 DENSITY=2500 SPECIFIC_HEAT=0.703 ABSORPTION_COEFFICIENT=0/

&SURF ID=‘8’ THICKNESS=0.01 RGB=154,204,255 MATL_ID=‘7’/

“Zdanie 1” – “Okno 1”

&OBST XB=5.75,5.75,2.75,3,1,2 SURF_ID=‘8’ TRANSPARENCY=0.75 RGB=102,102,255/

&OBST XB=5.75,6,2.75,2.75,1,2 SURF_ID=‘8’ TRANSPARENCY=0.75 RGB=102,102,255/

&OBST XB=6,6,2.5,2.75,1,2 SURF_ID=‘8’ TRANSPARENCY=0.75 RGB=102,102,255/

&OBST XB=6,6.25,2.5,2.5,1,2 SURF_ID=‘8’ TRANSPARENCY=0.75 RGB=102,102,255/

&OBST XB=6.25,6.25,2.25,2.5,1,2 SURF_ID=‘8’ TRANSPARENCY=0.75 RGB=102,102,255/

In Fenix+ 3, the thickness of the door and window is always 0.05 m and 0.01 m, respectively. Since in practice, usually, Computational Areas with a significantly larger cell size are used, when the Consider Leaks option is disabled, the Door and Window are represented in the FDS file using OBSTs of zero thickness. The thickness of the Door and the thickness of the Window are transferred using the THICKNESS parameter of the SURF parameter group.

The Window element always appears semi-transparent in Smokeview. For this, the parameter TRANSPARENCY=0.75 is specified in the OBST parameter group.

In the given example, the Window Glass material is selected for which the absorption coefficient is set to zero (the ABSORPTION_COEFFICIENT parameter of the MATL parameter group is equal to zero).

It is necessary to distinguish between the transparency of the element when viewing the model in Smokeview, which is set by the TRANSPARENCY parameter of the OBST parameter group, and which does not affect the simulation results in any way, and the transparency of the object for radiation, which is controlled by the ABSORPTION_COEFFICIENT parameter.

Consider leaks

The Door and Window elements have a Consider Leaks option, which is described in the Leakage Simulation section.

Individual parameters of the Door element

Selecting the “With recorder” parameter results in placing the recorder on the Door element. This is described in detail in the Recorders section.

In a fire simulation, the Door With a Closer is initially closed. But it opens for the time of the people passage, if the evacuation is simulated before the fire simulation. After the people passage, the Door With a Closer will be closed after the time specified in the Closing Time parameter of the Door element. By default, it is 25 seconds.

Closing time for Door With a Closer

If a closing time of 25 seconds is selected for the door, the following code will appear in the FDS file

&OBST XB=-1,0,4,4,0,2 RGB=255,204,102 CTRL_ID=‘3’/

&CTRL ID=‘3’ FUNCTION_TYPE=‘CUSTOM’ INPUT_ID(1:1)=‘CLOCK’ RAMP_ID=‘4’ LATCH=.False. INITIAL_STATE=.True./

&RAMP ID=‘4’ FYI=‘Dver 2 ramp’ T=6.5 F=-1/

&RAMP ID=‘4’ FYI=‘Dver 2 ramp’ T=8.5 F=1/

&RAMP ID=‘4’ FYI=‘Dver 2 ramp’ T=31.9 F=1/

&RAMP ID=‘4’ FYI=‘Dver 2 ramp’ T=33.9 F=-1/

Where the moment of time 7.5 seconds corresponds to the moment of passage of the first person, and the moment of 32.9 seconds corresponds to the time 25 seconds after the passage of the last person. At the first moment of time OBST will disappear, and at the second moment it will appear again. The RAMP parameter group is used to set the timing function, and the CTRL parameter group controls the disappearance and emergence of OBST at the appropriate times.

In a fire simulation, the Fireproof Door is initially closed. If the Equipped with Automatic Closing Device option is selected in the Fire Simulation Parameters, at the moment of people passage the door will open and close after the Closing Time after the last person has passed.

Fire simulation parameters. Doors and windows

A fireproof door that closes after 25 seconds will have the same code in the FDS file as a door with a closer.

If the Equipped with Automatic Closing Device option is not selected, the OBST elements representing the door do not disappear during the fire simulation at all.

Other parameters of the Window element

In the Fire Simulation Parameters (see the figure above), it is possible to specify whether the Windows are considered closed during the simulation. If the Closed option is not selected, the window opening will be open.

Activation of the Destruction upon Reaching Critical Temperature option with the Closed option activated will result in a temperature meter being placed on each side of the window. The meter is located in the upper part of the window, in the middle of the horizontal projection, at a distance approximately equal to the MESH cell size. If during the fire simulation the readings of at least one meter exceed the Destruction Temperature value, the OBST elements corresponding to the Window element will disappear.

In the FDS file, the following code corresponds to the Window that can be destroyed when a critical temperature is reached.

&OBST XB=2.5,2.5,1,2,1,2 TRANSPARENCY=0.75 RGB=102,102,255 CTRL_ID=‘3’/

&CTRL ID=‘3’ FUNCTION_TYPE=‘ANY’ INPUT_ID(1:2)=‘1’,‘2’ INITIAL_STATE=.True./

&DEVC ID=‘1’ FYI=‘Okno 1 device 1’ QUANTITY=‘TEMPERATURE’ SETPOINT=250 XYZ=2.82954480796586,1.49359881877899,1.75/

&DEVC ID=‘2’ FYI=‘Okno 1 device 2’ QUANTITY=‘TEMPERATURE’ SETPOINT=250 XYZ=2.04954480796586,1.49359881877899,1.75/

Here, the DEVC parameter group describes the temperature meters, and the CTRL parameter group controls the OBST disappearance when the temperature exceeds the set value.